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"It is not merely for today, but for all time to come that we should perpetuate for our children's children this great and free government, which we have enjoyed all our lives."


September, 2014


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In this issue

Commanders Column
Secretary's Report
September 1864
16th Michigan
August 1864
Conscription
Michigan Money
Upcoming events
Back Issues
A photo from the Civil War


Commanders Column


Gentlemen of Camp 7;

I fell that our September meeting was a great success. We were honored to have many guest that included Department Commander Paul Davis, PDC Dave Arnold, Commander Dave Bankhead from Camp 17, and PCC Howard Streeter from Camp 22. Mike Culp spoke on the War in the West, and how the war was won there. A very informative talk indeed.

Also, at the meeting, I was honored to present to Brother Mike Maillard, the Camp's highest honor, the Austin Blair Award. Mikes tireless work over the last year on our 100 year anniversary medal, and the Monument at the Soldiers Cemetery earned him this award. To make the presentation a little more special, the award was given to Brother Maillard by Department Command Davis. "Well done Mike", and thank you again for all of your hard work.

One other thing of note, we were informed that our Christmas Party will again be held at Sandstone Church. The date for this is December the 7th. Please be sure to mark your calenders.

Please remember that next month we will be holding our elections, and it would be great if we could have maximum attendance.

Howard Lloyd
Camp Commander
Austin Blair Camp No. 7
Department of Michigan
S.U.V.C.W.
www.austinblair.com

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CONSCRIPTION!


The draft letter sent October 28, 1863
The Enrollment Act, enacted March 3, 1863, also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act, was legislation passed to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army. A form of conscription the controversial act required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. In some cities, particularly New York City enforcement of the act sparked civil unrest as the war dragged on, leading to the New York Draft Riots on July 13-16. It replaced the previous Militia Act of 1862.

The policies of substitution and commutation were controversial practices that allowed drafted citizens to opt out of service by either furnishing a suitable substitute to take the place of the drafted, or paying $300. Both of these provisions were created with the intention of softening the effect of the draft on pacifists, the anti-draft movement, and the propertied classes. The result however was general public resentment of both policies. These two practices were major points of contention among the general public and led directly to the slogan "rich man's war, poor man's fight.

Substitution

The policy of substitution was continued throughout the war. The problem with substitution was that it provided substitutes with powerful incentives to desert soon after enlisting. Career "jumpers" made a living off of enlisting as a substitute, collecting their compensation, deserting before their units were dispatched to the front, and repeating the process.

This problem was well known to the military commanders who regularly saw the same recruits repeatedly. In addition, troops furnished through substitution were considered to be of an inferior quality in comparison to regulars and volunteers. The Wilson Bill of March 2, 1863 allowed for $300 substitution fee.

Commutation (paying $300 to escape the draft) was created in an effort to keep substitution prices low. If commutation were not instated, the price of a substitute would have quickly soared past $300. In addition to suppressing substitution prices, commutation was intended to raise money for the war effort. While commutation did raise war funds, it was often a criticism of the draft that it was better at raising money than troops. The rationalization for commutation was that unwilling troops were ineffective, so the government may as well extract funds from the unwilling if it couldn't get proficient service. Despite the good intentions behind commutation, it was one of the most hated policies of the war.

Congress adopted a Conscription Act (also known as the Enrollment Act) based on the Constitutional clause permitting the government "to raise and support armies." All able-bodied male citizens and alien declarants between 20 to 45. It divided enrollees into two classes; Class 1 included all men between 20 to 35 and unmarried men between 35 and 45, and class 2 containing all men not in class 1. No Class 2 enrollees would be drafted until all Class 1 pool was exhausted. Exemptions: physically or mentally unfit, convicted felons, a restricted number of state and national officials, provide a substitute or pay a $300 commutation fee- July 1864 commutation was abolished, only sons of dependent widows, and sole supporters of infirm parents or orphaned children. The North did not allow the occupation exemptions. More than 50% of northern draftees found a way to gain an exemption, with physical disability being a sure avenue of escape. Some men practiced self-mutilation, while other draftees fabricated disabilities, buttressing their claims with testimonials from unscrupulous friends and doctors.

86,724 men paid the exemption cost to avoid service. The inequality of this arrangement led to draft riots in New York.

Of the 2,213,363 men who served in the Union Army during the Civil War:
A quarter of a million 225,000 men will be discharged for wounds and illness and another 200,000 will be listed as desertions.

A total of 281,881 were wounded but many went on and served until the end of the war and almost all the men were sick at one time while serving in the Union Army.

The total number of desertions from the Union Army during the four years of the war at nearly 350,000. Using these numbers, 15% of Union soldiers deserted during the war. Official numbers put the number of deserters from the Union Army at 200,000 for the entire war, or about 8% of Union Army soldiers. It is estimated that 1 out of 3 deserters returned to their regiments, either voluntarily or after being arrested and being sent back..

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September 1864

Submitted by PCC Ron Tyrl

September 2, 1864: Sherman entered Atlanta.
Battle of Atlanta Confederates lost 8,000 to Federal’s 3,700 casualties.

Modern warfare born in this Atlanta campaign: camouflage, booby traps, land mines, trench raids, foxholes, night attacks, flares, trip wires and general use of anesthetics.

September 3, 1864:
After a vacation, Robert returned to campus in September to attend Harvard Law School, following in his father's vocation. The school was not highly regarded at the time (it was called "a disgrace to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts" by the American Law Review in 1870), and it is not known if its perceived shortcomings affected Robert's decision to drop out. During his brief stay, Robert argued moot court cases with students like Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., the thrice-wounded Civil War veteran and future U.S. Supreme Court jurist. Robert left law school after his first semester and joined the staff of General Ulysses Grant as a captain. While in college, he was under public pressure to enter the Union Army, but apparently also had a genuine desire to enlist. His Aunt Emilie recalled overhearing his mother tell President Lincoln, "I know that Robert's plea to go into the Army is manly and noble and I want him to go, but oh! I am so frightened he may never come back to us!"

September 4, 1864:
Owen Lovejoy, Lincoln visited his abolitionist friend from Illinois, who was on his death bed. “This war is eating my life out. I have a strong impression that I shall not live to see the end.”

September 5, 1864:
Mid-Western Governors: Richard “Dick” Yates- Illinois; David Tod- Ohio; Andrew “Andy” Curtin – Pennsylvania; Austin Blair- Michigan; Edward Salomon- Wisconsin; and Oliver Morton- Indiana.

September 9, 1864:
The grinding drama of drums & blood and agony went on. The lines of boys in blue poured south and ever south, fractions of them returning horizontal and groaning in ambulances; others by thousands in shallow rain-soaked graves where hurried burying squads had shoveled them over, still others by thousands at Shiloh, Malvern Hill, Gettysburg, with ribs and skulls picked clean and bare by scavenge birds, rain and sunlight finally giving them dignity.

September 17, 1864:
Gen. Grant approved Sheridan's plan for Shenandoah Valley Campaign. "I want it so barren that a crow, flying down it, would need to pack rations."

September 19, 1864:
Winchester Sheridan attacked Early’s forces capturing thousands.

September 27, 1864:
Confederate guerrilla Bloody Bill Anderson and his henchmen, including a teenage Jesse James, massacred 20 unarmed Union soldiers at Centralia, Mo.

September 30, 1864:
John Staples, 20 years old, agrees to serve as President Lincoln’s “representative”. Under the Enrollment Act, military age men could hire substitutes for $300 to take their place, men older than 45 as Lincoln was could pay $500 and send a man into the army as a representative rather than a substitute. When Staples reported for duty to a sergeant who looked at Staples who was shorter than Lincoln and said, “aren’t you just the first installment?” Staples served without any influence and survived.

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. ~ NEW MEMBERS ~


Alex Tingley
At this years Jackson Muster, we were once again able to install an new member. Brothers and Sisters, welcome Junior member Alex Tingley. Alex, we all look forward to working with you on projects in the future.

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Michigan Money

At the time of the Civil War many banks printed their own money.
Below is an example of one of those bills..

A 10 cent note from the Bank of Michigan

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August 1864
Submitted by Ron Tyrl

August 13, 1864:
During the night of August 13-14, the Union II Corps, X Corps, and Gregg’s cavalry division, all under command of Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, crossed the James River at Deep Bottom to threaten Richmond, coordinating with a movement against the Weldon Railroad at Petersburg. On August 14, the X Corps closed on New Market Heights while the II Corps extended the Federal line to the right along Bailey’s Creek. During the night, the X Corps was moved to the far right flank of the Union line near Fussell’s Mill. On August 16, Union assaults near Fussell’s Mill were initially successful, but Confederate counterattacks drove the Federals out of a line of captured works. Heavy fighting continued throughout the remainder of the day. Confederate general John Chambliss was killed during cavalry fighting on Charles City Road. After continual skirmishing, the Federals returned to the southside of the James on the 20th, maintaining their bridgehead at Deep Bottom.

Yankee ingenuity. First machine tools, bio focal glasses, cotton gin, automated flour mills, high pressure steam engines, interchangeable parts, the McCormick reaper, oil industry, the airplane, Coca-Cola, the affordable automobile, the digital computer.
"America had less past than any other country and therefore we could make our own history. Nothing encourages entrepreneurial activity more than the freedom to take risks. The freedom to fail."
Frederic Tudor.
The freedom to fail is a great spur to entrepreneurship. And no country in the world has been as consistently tolerant of economic failure as United States. While bankruptcy in Europe has always been regarded as a moral as well as a financial failure, this has not been the case here possibly because we are descendants of people who sought a second chance by integrating.

Speech to the One Hundred Sixty-Fourth Ohio Regiment
Washington, D.C.
August 18, 1864
Soldiers -- You are about to return to your homes and your friends, after having, as I learn, performed in camp a comparatively short term of duty in this great contest. I am greatly obliged to you, and to all who have come forward at the call of their country. I wish it might be more generally and universally understood what the country is now engaged in. We have, as all will agree, a free Government, where every man has a right to be equal with every other man. In this great struggle, this form of Government and every form of human right is endangered if our enemies succeed. There is more involved in this contest than is realized by every one. There is involved in this struggle the question whether your children and my children shall enjoy the privileges we have enjoyed. I say this in order to impress upon you, if you are not already so impressed, that no small matter should divert us from our great purpose. There may be some irregularities in the practical application of our system. It is fair that each man shall pay taxes in exact proportion to the value of his property; but if we should wait before collecting a tax to adjust the taxes upon each man in exact proportion with every other man, we should never collect any tax at all. There may be mistakes made sometimes; things may be done wrong while the officers of the Government do all they can to prevent mistakes. But I beg of you, as citizens of this great Republic, not to let your minds to carried off from the great work we have before us. This struggle is too large for you to be diverted from it by any small matter. When you return to your homes rise up to the height of a generation of men worthy of a free Government, and we will carry out the great work we have commenced. I return to you my sincere thanks, soldiers, for the honor you have done me this afternoon.

Hartman Sharp Felt May 10, 1836 to August 24, 1864 dying from wounds at Deep Bottom Virginia. Parents Dorman Felt & Eliza Dewey Felt. Burial Grass Lake East Cemetery Jackson, Michigan

August 23, 1864:
Lincoln’s cabinet signs pledge to co-operate
"This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will by my duty to so cooperate with the Government President elect, as to save the Union between the Election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards."

August 24, 1864:
Speech to the One Hundred Sixty-sixth Ohio Regiment:
Washington D.C. August 22, 1864
“Soldiers I suppose you are going home to see your families and friends. For the services you have done in this great struggle in which we are engaged, I present you sincere thanks for myself and the country.

I almost always feel inclined, when I say anything to soldiers, to impress upon them, in a few brief remarks, the importance of success in this contest. It is not merely for the day, but for all time to come, that we should perpetuate for our children’s children that great and free government which we have enjoyed all our lives. I beg you to remember this, not merely for my sake, but for yours. I happen, temporarily, to occupy this big White House. I am a living witness that any one of your children may look to come here as my father’s child has. It is in order that each of you may have through this free government which we have enjoyed, an open field, and a fair chance for your industry, enterprise, and intelligence; that you may all have equal privileges in the race of life with all its desirable human aspirations. It is for this that the struggle should be maintained, that we may not lose our birthright- not only for one, but for two or three years. The nation is worth fighting for, to secure such an inestimable jewel.”
A. Lincoln

August 27, 1864:
In the early stages of the war, Lee’s cavalrymen rode powerful mounts and exhibited extraordinary skills in horsemanship, giving the Confederates a decided advantage. When the tide shifted to the Federals, who secured good-quality animals, fed them well, and improved their own riding skills. More importantly, Union cavalrymen switched from single-shot weapons to repeating rifles. Confederates armed with musketoons, even Enfields, were no match for the increased firepower of Yankee cavalrymen.

August 28, 1864:
The Democratic National Convention began in Chicago. General George B. McClellan's campaign platform called the war in America a failure.

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Secretary's Report
Ron Tyrl PPC

The September 8, 2014 meeting of the Austin Blair Camp No.7 Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War was held at the Post 29 American Legion, Jackson, Michigan.

Members in attendance were Brothers: Chris Cox, Joe Davis, Bob Griggs, Henry Hawker, Kim Horning, Dave Kimble, Ron Lewis, Howard Lloyd, Mike Maillard, Ron Tyrl, Dave Van Hoof and Charlie Waters Jr. and guest: Dept. Commander Paul Davis, Past Dept. Commander Dave Arnold, Camp 20’s Brother Mike Culp, Camp 17’s Brother Dave Bankhead and Camp 22’s Brother Howard Streeter.
Commander Lloyd welcomed Department Commander Davis and guest and gave the floor to Brother Culp who presented a presentation on the “War in the West” summarizing the western theater’s Army of the Tennessee and Army of the Cumberland campaigns.
The meeting was opened following Brother Culp’s presentation and the Secretary’s report was motioned accepted as published in the Courier by Brother Waters and seconded by Brother Cox, motion passed.
Brother Maillard began the treasurer’s report with a summary on a recent visit with Brother Doyle and Brother Maillard also summarized all of Brother Doyle’s contributions to the Camp over the years.
Brother Maillard made a motion that $150 of the $300 received for the Concord event held in July be given to the Auxiliary, motion seconded by Brother Griggs, motion passed.
Brother Griggs made computer DVDs for sale, for the Camp’s treasury, to take to the events the camp attends and seven have been sold so far at $10 a disc and Brother Maillard made a motion to reimburse Brother Griggs $2 per disc, motion seconded by Brother Kimble; motion passed.
Brother Maillard reviewed the restoration funds: Camp Blair and Hoffman, and Brother Griggs motioned that the Camp Blair funds be made available for the newly installed Soldier’s Monument’s up keep, seconded by Brother Kimble; motion passed.
A letter was sent to Consumers Power in regards to the Cabinet donation the Camp received from Consumers and we acknowledge receipt and appreciation of this donation. The Treasurer’s Report was motioned accepted as presented, by Brother Griggs and seconded by Brother Cox, motion passed.

Graves Registration

1. Brother Waters III continues to work with Hillcrest Cemetery for Private Pine's Flat Granite Marker that needs to be uncovered.

Signals

1. Brother Griggs has updated our Camp’s website and facebook pages continually and received many “Likes” on the Camp’s participation in the Eaton Rapid’s GAR student day camp last month on our Facebook pages.
2. The DVDs Brother Griggs has made for Camp revenue includes: Battles and Leaders; Leslie Illustrations, Confederate Magazine, Civil War etchings and photos, folders of different topics- money, post cards, etc.

Communications

The camp received an invitation to participate at the Eaton Rapid’s “Miller Farm program” Saturday, October 4th. Brother Griggs reported that a President Lincoln will be participating and may need our assistance with his part.

Old Business

1. Ella Sharp Museum will possibly loan one of the three GAR Post 48 chairs to the Eaton Rapids GAR Museum. GAR Museum’s Keith Harrison will be notified of this loan possibility.
2. Meeting 10 months a year rather than 9 meetings was proposed for thought.

New Business

Commander Bankhead requested assistance for the Sunfield Camp’s dedication program September 20th, Saturday, in Webberville, Michigan at 10:30am, details on our and their webpages.
A flyer was handed out on the Jackson Area Civil War Round Table being formed. Tuesday, September 16, organizing meeting at the Jackson Library Meijer Branch at 6:30pm; first roundtable October 14th.
Elections next meeting for 2015 Camp positions, Brothers Hawker, Lewis and Oberdank taking interest in positions.

For the Good of the Order

Events up-coming:

Brother Griggs announced that donated Civil War Clothing placed on a table was available at the meeting.
Brother Cox has Sesquicentennial ink pens available from the National Encampment for a $1 donation to the Camp.
Up-coming events: September 20-21, Thompkins Center’s “Freedom Festival”.
September 20, Saturday, Camp 17’s Webberville Dedication.
October 4th, Saturday, Eaton Rapids “Miller Farm”.
October 12th, Sunday, Waterloo “Pioneer Day Fall Festival”.
Camp’s Christmas Party, December 7th, Sunday, at Sandstone Church.

Commander Lloyd proceeded to close the meeting at 8:45pm and our next camp meeting is scheduled for Monday, October 13, 2014, to be held at Post 29 American Legion, Jackson, Michigan.

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Upcoming Events

September: 2014
Austin Blair Camp No. 7Auxiliary
Monday September 8th; 7 p.m.

Austin Blair Camp Meeting. American Legion Post 29,
Guest speaker with be Mike Culp from the 13th Michigan Association
3200 Lansing Ave. Jackson MI. ( Visitors welcome)
20th - Saturday 10:30a.m. Webberville

Gravesite dedication, Webberville, Michigan

Monday September 8th; 7 p.m.

Austin Blair Camp Meeting. American Legion Post 29,
Guest speaker with be Mike Culp from the 13th Michigan Association
3200 Lansing Ave. Jackson MI. ( Visitors welcome).
20th - Saturday 10:30a.m. Webberville

Gravesite dedication, Webberville, Michigan

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October: 2014
Austin Blair Camp No. 7Auxiliary
4th - Saturday - 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eaton Rapids

Fall Heritage Festival at the Miller Farm. Located at 635 State Street, Eaton Rapids Michigan


12th - Sunday Noon - 5 p.m. Waterloo

Waterloo Farm Museum Pioneer Day. 13493 Waterloo-Munith Rd., Waterloo Michigan


Monday October 13th; 7 p.m.

Austin Blair Camp Meeting. American Legion Post 29,
3200 Lansing Ave. Jackson MI. ( Visitors welcome).
4th - Saturday - 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eaton Rapids

Fall Heritage Festival at the Miller Farm. Located at 635 State Street, Eaton Rapids

12th - Sunday Noon - 5 p.m. Waterloo

Waterloo Farm Museum Pioneer Day. 13493 Waterloo-Munith Rd., Waterloo Michigan


Monday October 13th; 7 p.m.

Austin Blair Camp Meeting. American Legion Post 29,
3200 Lansing Ave. Jackson MI. ( Visitors welcome).

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Confederate dead on the Battlefield of Antietam.

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Members of the 16 Michigan Volunteer Infantry at their monument dedication on Little Round Top Gettysburg.


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